This paper assesses the status of farmers’ knowledge and their perceptions of land degradation and their knowledge of the existing soil and water conservation measures in Kamba woreda, Gamo-Gofa zone, Southern Ethiopia. The main source of livelihood in the study area is mixed subsistence agriculture. Field observations, focus group discussion, structured and semi-structured household surveys were carried out in five selected Kebeles, with 117 household heads. The results indicate that farmers were aware of the on-going land/soil degradation and of several erosion control measures and land management practices. However, land degradation resulted in reduced yields, soil change and soil erosion due to rill and gully formation often resulting in removal. Farmers preferred water diversion ditch, ridges and counter ploughing practices for soil and water conservation; chemical fertilizer, crop rotation and mixed cropping for soil fertility amendment while they did not recognize agro forestry and farm yard manure as a conservation and fertility amendment measure. Farmers faced several constraints in adopting SWC measures: decrease in farm size, its inconvenience during free movement of oxen plough, and multiplication of rats in the stone bunds. Any programme designed to address land degradation, especially soil degradation should consider those farmers criteria for adoption.
Key Words: Conservation, Degradation, Farmer, Land, Management, Kamba