This paper examined the attitude of rural dwellers to biodiversity conservation in Onigambari forest reserve, Ibadan Oyo State. A multi- sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents from the study area. Data were collected with the aid of interview schedule and analyzed with both descriptive and inferential analysis. The distribution showed that majority were male (65.8%), married (63.3%) with an average household size of 7±4.3 persons. Most (56.7%) of the respondents recorded low level of knowledge on biodiversity conservation, most (78.3%) manifested an unfavourable attitude towards biodiversity conservation. Biodiversity conservation measures was also low (70.0%) among rural dwellers. Age (r = 0.451), years of education (r = 0.186), household size (r = 0.483) and knowledge of biodiversity conservation (r = 0.331) were significantly related with attitude towards biodiversity conservation α 0.05. The study concluded that rural dwellers around Onigbambari forest reserve had a negative attitude towards biodiversity conservation. The study therefore recommends the need for campaigns and trainings on sustainable use of natural resources among rural dwellers the rural area by Non-Governmental Organizations, government agencies so as to enhance or improve their knowledge and attitude towards biodiversity conservation.
Key Words: Biodiversity conservation, Rural dwellers, Attitude