In Ethiopia, the implementation of comprehensive water resources development program, particularly irrigation and hydro power generation could be additional opportunity to increase farm productivity through integration of culture based fishery and water resources uses. The role of fishery and aquaculture in reducing poverty and alleviating food insecurity at household level is enormous. The main objective of the study was to assess the overall activities of fish stocking programs and their impacts on enhancing the fish production and contribution to food security in six regions of the country: Tigray, Oromia, Amhara, Southern Nations, Nationalities and people (SNNP), Afar and Somali Regional States. Both secondary and primary data were used for the assessment. The first fish introduction and stocking program in Ethiopia was started in 1925. Fish harvested in the reservoirs and natural water bodies enhanced by stocking contribute up to 15% of the annual fish production of the country. The development strategy for culture based fishery must rely on scientific evidence and stocking density should be based on the trophic status of the reservoir, desired market sizes of fish, and projected yields.
Key Words: Carp, Culture based fishery, Fish introduction, Food security, Reservoirs, Tilapia