Adaptation is crucial to combating the adverse effect of climate variability thus reducing farmers’ vulnerability. This study was carried out to investigate the vulnerability and adaptation strategies of rural farmers to climate variability in Oyo State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used and 160 respondents were selected across the four agriculture zones in the State. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, livelihood vulnerability index, and correlation analysis. Vulnerability assessment of the respondents showed that Oyo zone had the highest vulnerability index (0.72). The major components contributing to households’ vulnerability to climate variability in the four zones were lack of financial capital (63.23%) and lack of physical assets (20.3%). Result further showed that the most practiced adaptation strategies by the respondents across the four zones include mulching (85.13%), preparation of ridges and furrow (80%) and changing of planting dates to suitable time (83.75%). However, climate mitigation practices such as agro-forestry (1.6%), organic fertilizer use (21.66%) and irrigation (0.83) were not common in Saki, Oyo and Ogbomoso zones. The study revealed that climatic variables significantly affected the total farm income realized in the study area and that most of the farm households were vulnerable to climate variability and were food insecure. It is therefore recommended that, adaptive strategies such as irrigation, organic fertilizer use and agro-forestry should be encouraged among farmers in order to mitigate climatic variations and enhance higher productivity.
Key Words: Climate variability, Vulnerability, Adaptation, Rural Farmers, Oyo State, Nigeria