The study investigated the cost and benefit structure of poultry egg production in Egba Division of Ogun State, Nigeria. A total of eighty (80) respondents were randomly selected and interviewed through structured questionnaires. The study looked at the socio-economic characteristics of poultry eggs farmers, the costs and returns of poultry egg enterprises, examined the socio-economic variables that influence output (crate of eggs) the study area. The method of data analysis included descriptive statistics such as frequency tables, mean and percentages. Budgeting technique which yielded gross margin and net farm income were used to determine the benefits of poultry egg production in the study area. The study revealed that in terms of age, it was revealed that majority (51.3%) of the respondents were aged between 41 and 50 years while the study also revealed that majority 85.0% of the poultry egg farmers were males. Majority (100.0%) of the household heads possess some form of formal education, which is predominantly at the secondary and/or tertiary level. Majority (96.3%) of the household heads were married as expected and a typical household in the study area is made up of 4 to 6 members. Majority (35.0%) of the households’ heads have farming as their main occupation, and with 5 to 10 years poultry farming experience making up majority of the respondents (60.0%). The result on profitability shows that poultry egg production in the study area is viable and profitable and the analysis done on the socio-economic factors and poultry egg output revealed that capital position, marital status and educational level of the respondents are statistically significant in determining the level of output of the egg production in the study area. It is recommended that Government should improve on the credit guarantee schemes which they have made available to the public as the capital position of the farmer is a significant factor that determine their output.
Key Word: Egg, Cost, Production, Poultry, Households