Natural resources have been degrading due to intensive agricultural activities in many developing countries. To rehabilitate the degraded natural resources and to improve productivity, watershed management practices have became the key approach to minimize loss of such resources. In Ethiopia the government has tried to implement soil and water conservation (SWC) measures through community campaign. The study examined the implication of watershed management practices on the productivity of smallholder farmers in Hidabu Abote Woreda, North Shewa, Oromia regional State, Ethiopia. The study employed a mixture of qualitative and quantitative methods. Data was generated through household (HH) survey, key informant interviews, focuses group discussion and observation. The quantitative data were generated from 266 household, where the sample sized detrained by standard method. Additionally, tables, graphs, narrative method, Pearson chi-square was used to examine the association between the activities of WSM and land productivity. The analysis shows that, physical SWC, biological measures and agronomic practices and moisture retention structures were the most commonly implemented activities to conserve natural resources thereby increase land productivities and improved smallholder farmer’s livelihood. The Pearson Chi-square statistical analysis revealed that all these activities have considerable role in increasing particularly crop yields by settling down the eroded soil as silt which is too essential for crop production of smallholder farmers. The policy makers and actors emphasize on solving the limitation through providing technical or action oriented training and awareness creation for farmers are the key recommendations.
Key Words: Hidabu Abote Woreda, Watershed management, Productivity, Soil and Water conservation, Smallholder farmers